A. Trifonov C.-Y. E. Tong P.Grimes Y. Lobanov N. Kaurova R.Blundell and G. Goltsman. Development of A Silicon Membrane-based Multi-pixel Hot Electron Bolometer Receiver. In: IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity. Vol 27.; 2017. 6.
Abstract: We report on the development of a multi-pixel
Hot Electron Bolometer (HEB) receiver fabricated using
silicon membrane technology. The receiver comprises a
2 × 2 array of four HEB mixers, fabricated on a single
chip. The HEB mixer chip is based on a superconducting
NbN thin film deposited on top of the silicon-on-insulator
(SOI) substrate. The thicknesses of the device layer and
handling layer of the SOI substrate are 20 μm and 300 μm
respectively. The thickness of the device layer is chosen
such that it corresponds to a quarter-wave in silicon at
1.35 THz. The HEB mixer is integrated with a bow-tie
antenna structure, in turn designed for coupling to a
Keywords: Multi-pixel, HEB, silicon-on-insulator, horn array
Felix Pyatkov Svetana Khasminskaya Vadim Kovalyuk Frank Hennrich Manfred M. Kappes Gregory N. Goltsman Wolfram H. P. Pernice and Ralph Krupke. Sub-nanosecond light-pulse generation with waveguide-coupled carbon nanotube transducers. Beilstein J Nanotechnol. 2017;8:38-44.
Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have recently been integrated into optical waveguides and operated as electrically-driven light emitters
under constant electrical bias. Such devices are of interest for the conversion of fast electrical signals into optical ones within a
nanophotonic circuit. Here, we demonstrate that waveguide-integrated single-walled CNTs are promising high-speed transducers
for light-pulse generation in the gigahertz range. Using a scalable fabrication approach we realize hybrid CNT-based nanophotonic
devices, which generate optical pulse trains in the range from 200 kHz to 2 GHz with decay times below 80 ps. Our results illustrate
the potential of CNTs for hybrid optoelectronic systems and nanoscale on-chip light sources.
Keywords: Carbon nanotubes and fullerenes; infrared; integrated optics devices; nanomaterials
M.S. Elezov R.V. Ozhegov G.N. Goltsman and V. Makarov. Development of the experimental setup for investigation of latching of superconducting single-photon detector caused by blinding attack on the quantum key distribution system. In: EPJ Web of Conferences. Vol 132.; 2017. 2.
Abstract: Recently bright-light control of the SSPD has been
demonstrated. This attack employed a “backdoor” in the detector biasing
scheme. Under bright-light illumination, SSPD becomes resistive and
remains “latched” in the resistive state even when the light is switched off.
While the SSPD is latched, Eve can simulate SSPD single-photon response
by sending strong light pulses, thus deceiving Bob. We developed the
experimental setup for investigation of a dependence on latching threshold
of SSPD on optical pulse length and peak power. By knowing latching
threshold it is possible to understand essential requirements for
development countermeasures against blinding attack on quantum key
distribution system with SSPDs.
N. Titova A. Kardakova N. Tovpeko S. Ryabchun S. Mandal D. Morozov G.M. Klemencic S.R. Giblin O.A. Williams G.N. Goltsman and T.M. Klapwijk. Slow Electron–Phonon Cooling in Superconducting Diamond Films. In: IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity. Vol 27.; 2017. 4.
Abstract: We have measured the electron-phonon energyrelaxation
time, 𝝉𝒆𝒑𝒉, in superconducting boron-doped diamond
films grown on silicon substrate by chemical vapour deposition.
The observed electron-phonon cooling times vary from 160 ns at
2.70 K to 410 ns at 1.8 K following a 𝑻!𝟐-dependence. The data
are consistent with the values of 𝝉𝒆𝒑𝒉 previously reported for
single-crystal boron-doped diamond films epitaxially grown on
diamond substrate. Such a noticeable slow electron-phonon
relaxation in boron-doped diamond, in combination with a high
normal-state resistivity confirms a potential of superconducting
diamond for ultrasensitive superconducting bolometers.
Keywords: Superconducting boron-doped diamond, electron-phonon time, superconducting nanobolometers
Simone Ferrari Vadim Kovalyuk Wladislaw Hartmann Andreas Vetter Oliver Kahl Changyoup Lee Alexander Korneev Carsten Rockstuhl Gregory Goltsman and Wolfram Pernice. Hot-spot relaxation time current dependence in niobium nitride waveguide-integrated superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors. Optics Express. 2017;25(8):8739-8750.
Abstract: We investigate how the bias current affects the hot-spot relaxation dynamics in
niobium nitride. We use for this purpose a near-infrared pump-probe technique on a waveguide-integrated superconducting nanowire single-photon detector driven in the twophoton regime. We observe a strong increase in the picosecond relaxation time for higher bias currents. A minimum relaxation time of (22 ± 1) ps is obtained when applying a bias current of 50% of the switching current at 1.7 K bath temperature. We also propose a practical approach to accurately estimate the photon detection regimes based on the reconstruction of the measured detector
Keywords: Photon counting; Infrared; Quantum detectors; Integrated optics; Multiphoton processes; Photon statistics
Yu.V. Lobanov M.L Shcherbatenko A.V. Semenov V.V. Kovalyuk A.A. Korneev and G.N. Goltsman. Heterodyne spectroscopy with superconducting single-photon detector. EPJ Web of Conferences. 2017;132(010005):2.
Abstract: We demonstrate successful operation of a Superconducting
Single Photon Detector (SSPD) as the core element in a heterodyne receiver.
Irradiating the SSPD by both a local oscillator power and signal power
simultaneously, we observed beat signal at the intermediate frequency of a
few MHz. Gain bandwidth was found to coincide with the detector single
pulse width, where the latter depends on the detector kinetic inductance,
determined by the superconducting nanowire length.
Yuliya Korneeva Irina Florya Sergey Vdovichev Mariya Moshkova Nikita Simonov Natalia Kaurova Alexander Korneev Gregory Goltsman. Comparison of hot-spot formation in NbN and MoN thin superconducting films after photon absorption. In: IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity. Vol 27.; 2017. 5.
Abstract: In superconducting single-photon detectors SSPD
the efficiency of local suppression of superconductivity and hotspot
formation is controlled by diffusivity and electron-phonon
interaction time. Here we selected a material, 3.6-nm-thick MoNx
film, which features diffusivity close to those of NbN traditionally
used for SSPD fabrication, but with electron-phonon interaction
time an order of magnitude larger. In MoNx detectors we study
the dependence of detection efficiency on bias current, photon
energy, and strip width and compare it with NbN SSPD. We
observe non-linear current-energy dependence in MoNx SSPD
and more pronounced plateaus in dependences of detection
efficiency on bias current which we attribute to longer electronphonon
Keywords: Thin film devices, Superconducitng photoncounting devices, Nanowire single-photon detectors
Yury Lobanov Michael Shcherbatenko Alexander Semenov Vadim Kovalyuk Oliver Kahl Simone Ferrari Alexander Korneev Roman Ozhegov Natalia Kaurova Boris M. Voronov Wolfram H. P. Pernice and Gregory N. Gol’tsman. Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detector for Coherent Detection of Weak Signals. In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY. Vol 27.; 2017. 5.
Abstract: Abstract—Traditional photon detectors are operated in the direct
detection mode, counting incident photons with a known
quantum efficiency. Here, we have investigated a superconducting
nanowire single photon detector (SNSPD) operated as a photon
counting mixer at telecommunication wavelength around 1.5 μm.
This regime of operation combines excellent sensitivity of a photon
counting detector with excellent spectral resolution given by
the heterodyne technique. Advantageously, we have found that
low local oscillator (LO) power of the order of hundreds of femtowatts
to a few picowatts is sufficient for clear observation of the
incident test signal with the sensitivity approaching the quantum
limit. With further optimization, the required LO power could be
significantly reduced, which is promising for many practical applications,
such as the development of receiver matrices or recording
ultralow signals at a level of less-than-one-photon per second. In
addition to a traditional NbN-based SNSPD operated with normal
incidence coupling, we also use detectors with a travelling wave
geometry, where a NbN nanowire is placed on the top of a Si3N4 nanophotonic waveguide. This approach is fully scalable and a
large number of devices could be integrated on a single chip.
Keywords: Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors, optical coherent receivers, heterodyne detection in optics.
Andreas Vetter Simone Ferrari Patrik Rath Rasoul Alaee Oliver Kahl Vadim Kovalyuk Silvia Diewald Gregory N. Goltsman Alexander Korneev Carsten Rockstuhl and Wolfram HP Pernice. Cavity enhanced and ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors. NanoLett. 2016;16(11):7085-7092.
Abstract: Ultrafast single-photon detectors with high efficiency are of utmost importance for many
applications in the context of integrated quantum photonic circuits. Detectors based on
superconductor nanowires attached to optical waveguides are particularly appealing for this
purpose. However, their speed is limited because the required high absorption efficiency
necessitates long nanowires deposited on top of the waveguide. This enhances the kinetic
inductance and makes the detectors slow. Here, we solve this problem by aligning the nanowire,
contrary to usual choice, perpendicular to the waveguide to realize devices with a length below
1 μm. By integrating the nanowire into a photonic crystal cavity, we recover high absorption
efficiency, thus enhancing the detection efficiency by more than an order of magnitude. Our
cavity enhanced superconducting nanowire detectors are fully embedded in silicon nanophotonic
circuits and efficiently detect single photons at telecom wavelengths. The detectors possess subnanosecond
decay (~ 120 ps) and recovery times (~ 510 ps), and thus show potential for GHz
count rates at low timing jitter (~ 32 ps). The small absorption volume allows efficient threshold
Keywords: Superconducting nanowire single-photon detector, nanophotonic circuit, multiphoton detection, photonic crystal cavity
Patrik Rath Andreas Vetter Vadim Kovalyuk Simone Ferrari Oliver Kahl Christoph Nebel Gregory N. Goltsman Alexander Korneev Wolfram H. P. Pernice. Travelling-wave single-photon detectors integrated with diamond photonic circuits – Operation at visible and telecom wavelengths with a timing jitter down to 23 ps. In: Proc. of SPIE. Vol 9750.; 2016. 97500T-1 - 97500T-8.
Abstract: We report on the design, fabrication and measurement of travelling-wave superconducting nanowire single-photon
detectors (SNSPDs) integrated with polycrystalline diamond photonic circuits. We analyze their performance both in the
near-infrared wavelength regime around 1600 nm and at 765 nm. Near-IR detection is important for compatibility with
the telecommunication infrastructure, while operation in the visible wavelength range is relevant for compatibility with
the emission line of silicon vacancy centers in diamond which can be used as efficient single-photon sources. Our
detectors feature high critical currents (up to 31 μA) and high performance in terms of efficiency (up to 74% at 765 nm),
noise-equivalent power (down to 4.4×10-19 W/Hz1/2 at 765 nm) and timing jitter (down to 23 ps).
Keywords: Single-Photon Detector, Superconducting Detector, SNSPD, Diamond Photonics, Integrated Optics.