Loudkov, D., Tong, C. Y. E., Blundell, R., Kaurova, N., Grishina, E., Voronov, B., et al. (2005). An investigation of the performance of the superconducting HEB슠mixer as a function of its RF슠embedding impedance. IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond., 15(2), 472–475.

Loudkov, D., Tong, C.  Y. E., Blundell, R., Kaurova, N., Grishina, E., Voronov, B., et al. (2005). An investigation of the performance of the superconducting HEB mixer as a function of its RF embedding impedance. IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond., 15(2), 472–475.
Abstract: We have conducted an investigation of the optimal embedding impedance for a waveguide superconducting hotelectron bolometric (HEB) mixer. Three mixer chip designs for 800 GHz, offering nominal embedding resistances of 70 /spl Omega/, 35 /spl Omega/, and 15 /spl Omega/, have been developed. We used both High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS) software and scale model impedance measurements in the design process. We subsequently fabricated HEB mixers to these designs using 34 nm thick NbN thin film. Receiver noise temperature measurements and Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) scans were performed to determine the optimal combination of embedding impedance and normalstate resistance for a 50 Ohm IF load impedance. A receiver noise temperature of 440 K was measured at a local oscillator frequency 850 GHz for a mixer with normal state resistance of 62 /spl Omega/ incorporated into a circuit offering a nominal embedding impedance of 70 /spl Omega/. We conclude from our data that, for low noise operation, the normal state resistance of the HEB mixer element should be close to the embedding impedance of the mixer mount.

Loudkov, D., Tong, C.  Y. E., Blundell, R., Kaurova, N., Grishina, E., Voronov, B., et al. (2005). An investigation of the performance of the waveguide superconducting HEB mixer at different RF embedding impedances. In Proc. 16^{th} Int. Symp. Space Terahertz Technol. (pp. 226–229).
Abstract: We have conducted an investigation of the performance of superconducting hotelectron bolometric (HEB) mixer at 800 GHz as a function of the embedding impedance of the waveguide embedding circuit. Using a single halfheight mixer block, we have developed three different mixer chip configurations, offering nominal embedding resistances of 70, 35, and 15 Ohms. Both the High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS) software and scaled model impedance measurements were employed in the design process. Two batches of HEB mixers were fabricated to these designs using 34 nm thick NbN thin film. The mixers were characterized through receiver noise temperature measurements and Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) scans. Briefly, a minimum receiver noise temperature of 440 K was measured at a local oscillator frequency 850 GHz for a mixer of normal state resistance 62 Ohms incorporated into a circuit offering a nominal embedding impedance of 70 Ohms. We conclude from our data that, for low noise operation, the normal state resistance of the HEB mixer element should be close to that of the embedding impedance of the mixer mount.

Marsili, F., Bitauld, D., Divochiy, A., Gaggero, A., Leoni, R., Mattioli, F., et al. (2008). Superconducting nanowire photon number resolving detector at telecom wavelength. In CLEO/QELS (Qmj1 (1 to 2)). Optical Society of America.
Abstract: We demonstrate a photonnumberresolving (PNR) detector, based on parallel superconducting nanowires, capable of resolving up to 5 photons in the telecommunication wavelength range, with sensitivity and speed far exceeding existing approaches.

Marsili, F., Bitauld, D., Fiore, A., Gaggero, A., Leoni, R., Mattioli, F., et al. (2009). Superconducting parallel nanowire detector with photon number resolving functionality. J. Modern Opt., 56(23), 334–344.
Abstract: We present a new photon number resolving detector (PNR), the Parallel Nanowire Detector (PND), which uses spatial multiplexing on a subwavelength scale to provide a single electrical output proportional to the photon number. The basic structure of the PND is the parallel connection of several NbN superconducting nanowires (100 nmwide, few nmthick), folded in a meander pattern. Electrical and optical equivalents of the device were developed in order to gain insight on its working principle. PNDs were fabricated on 34 nm thick NbN films grown on sapphire (substrate temperature TS=900C) or MgO (TS=400C) substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering in an Ar/N2 gas mixture. The device performance was characterized in terms of speed and sensitivity. The photoresponse shows a full width at half maximum (FWHM) as low as 660ps. PNDs showed counting performance at 80 MHz repetition rate. Building the histograms of the photoresponse peak, no multiplication noise buildup is observable and a one photon quantum efficiency can be estimated to be QE=3% (at 700 nm wavelength and 4.2 K temperature). The PND significantly outperforms existing PNR detectors in terms of simplicity, sensitivity, speed, and multiplication noise.
